NCERT Notes Political Science : Regional Aspirations 2022-23 Download PDF

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NCERT Notes : Regional Aspirations 2022-23


  Regional Aspirations


Region and Nation: - In the 1980s, the demand for autonomy arose from many parts of the country, the agitators took up arms, the central government had to retaliate, the path of reconciliation had to be taken to put an end to the conflicts.

 "The feeling of belonging and the desire for development is called 'regional aspirations' or 'regionalism'."

When regionalism takes a radical form, it turns into "separatism".

INDIAN APPROACH

 Various communities, religions, languages and customs have contributed to what India is today.

All communities and sects have had a hand in music, literature, art, science and politics. "Unity in Diversity" is our national identity.

1. The constitution protects the rights of all regions and linguistic groups:-

 The constitution does not discriminate against anyone on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth. Gives us the right to preserve our language, script and culture.

National unity does not mean the rejection of regionalism. The objective of the constitution is the establishment of a "secular state".

2. India's approach to regional aspirations is democratic:

 India has a democratic government. Here the citizen has the right to criticize the policies of the government. They have the right to form institutions, unions and political parties.

The regional demands 
arising in different parts of the country are resolved through democratic process.

3. Regional parties have played an effective role in the politics of the country:

 The main role in the politics of the country has been played by the following parties.

Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party, Janata Dal (United), Asom Gana Parishad National Conference, Shiromani Akali Dal, DMK, AIDMK, Shiv Sena and Biju Janata Dal.

Areas of tension India is a country full of diversities, so regionalism is not a shocking phenomenon.

When "regionalismturns into separatism, it often takes a violent form.

The factors responsible for the situation of tension and conflict in India are as follows:-

1. The question of reorganization of states :-

 During the British period, the reorganization of the states took place in a chaotic manner, it had no relation with the history, culture and languages of the country.

After independence, the demand for the Reorganization of the states arose. On the basis of the recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission, 14 states and 6 union territories were formed in the country in 1956, yet not all the states were satisfied with the reorganization.

2. Demand for formation of states on linguistic basis :-

 Much of India's politics has revolved around regionalism and linguistic questions.

Andhra Pradesh was formed on November 1, 1956, on the demand of the Telugu speaking people, in May 1960, the state of Gujarat and Maharashtra were formed.

In 1966, the state of Punjab was divided into three parts - Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh (U.T.) which became a state in 1971.

3. Opposing Hindi in non-Hindi Regions:-

 Hindi was accepted as the national language by the Constitution and aimed to increase it in 15 years, 
but as the border of 1965 approached, discontent started increasing in non-Hindi speaking states and violent 
demonstrations started in Tamil Nadu.

Therefore, in 1963, the Official Language Act provided that English would continue to be used along with Hindi for official purposes.

4. Separatist Movement :-

 Separatist movements ran in the North Eastern regions. Naga movement, destructive activities of Mizo National Front in Mizoram.

In 1962, the DMK raised the demand for an independent state "Dravidanad" but 
soon withdrew.

5. Autonomy Movement and Militant Violence in Jammu and Kashmir :-

 Militancy took a violent turn in Jammu and Kashmir due to Pakistan-backed terrorism from across the border.

But the people of the valley are not pro-Pak, they are demanding autonomy. Presently Jammu and Kashmir is known as U.T.

6. Tribal Movement :

The tribals of Bihar demanded a separate state "Jharkhand". In November 2002, 3 states came into existence - Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand.

There is a movement for Bodoland in Assam

7. Other Regional Movements:-

 Telangana state was formed on June 2, 2014. The demand for the formation of other states-
Gorkhaland, Bodoland and Vidarbha is rising.

The proposal to divide Uttar Pradesh into four parts- Harit 
Pradesh, Purvanchal, Bundelkhand and Avadh Pradesh is very old.

Jammu & Kashmir Maharaja Hari Singh had complete control over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. He 
sought India's help while battling a Pak-backed tribal attack in October 1947.

The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir merged with India on 26 October 1947. The total area of Jammu and Kashmir is 101387 square kilometres and it includes three social and 
political areas-

1. Jammu region:- Majority of Hindus are here and there are also Muslims, Sikhs etc.

2. Kashmir Valley :- Most of the residents in the valley are Muslims. About 3 lakh people are displaced and living in Jammu, Delhi and other cities.

3. Ladakh: - This is a Buddhist dominated area and Muslims also live here but their population is very less.
Discriminatory behavior between different regions of Jammu and Kashmir The number of voters in the Jammu and Kashmir Valley is almost equal, but in the state assembly, Jammu was elected 37 seats, Kashmir 46 seats and Ladakh only four MLAs.

In the revenue, the amount received from Jammu was 70%, the amount received from Kashmir was 30%, from Ladakh was negligible. 60% of the 
revenue was being spent on the Valley. 90% of the Secretariat were residents of the Kashmir Valley.

Roots of the Problem At the time of India's independence, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was under the control of Raja Hari Singh. The population there was about 40 lakhs, of which about 70% were Muslim people.

For this reason, Pakistan was impatient to include Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan. Afraid of tribal attack on October, 
1947, merged with India on October 26, 1947.

Sheikh Abdullah became the Prime Minister of the princely state in 1948. India agreed to maintain the autonomy of Jammu and Kashmir and was given constitutional status by 
provision of Article 370.

External and Internal Disputes

1. External factors:-
 Some area of Jammu and Kashmir state is 2,22,236 square kilometer but only 1,01,387 square kilometer area is occupied by India. Area of POK. 78,114 square kilometer is called "Azad Kashmir".

The area illegally given to China by Pakistan is 5180 square kilometers and China has occupied 37,555 square kilometers of this state.

 On February 6, 1954, the Constituent Assembly of Kashmir gave its approval for the accession of Kashmir to India, but Pakistan does not accept this merger and "Kashmir" has been an issue of conflict between India and Pakistan.

2. Internal Factors:-

 A. Jammu region :- The discrimination against Jammu region is well known. The people of Jammu think that a separate Jammu state is the solution to the problem.

Along with Jammu, Rajouri, Poonch and Doda Muslim dominated areas will also remain, so the demand is not 
communal.

 B. Ladakh :- People of Ladakh want the status of “Union Territory”, they were successful in getting “Ladakh 
Hill Development Council (LHDC)” but they were not completely satisfied.

 C. Kashmir Valley: - Despite India's accession to Jammu and Kashmir on October 26, 1947, Kashmir remains a disturbed area due to separatist elements.

Art- 370 Under this there were some special provisions for Jammu and Kashmir:-

1. Separate constitution
2. Separate flag
3. More autonomy over states
4. Legislative power of 
Parliament was limited only to those matters which were entrusted to the Central Government by Instrument of 
Accession.

Article 370, 1954 order has been repealed by an order of Indian President Ram Nath Kovind on August 5, 2019. Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh have two U.Ts.

Politics: After 1948


  1. The United Nations Security Council passed a ceasefire agreement resolution between India and Pakistan in August 1948.
  2. The resolution said that Pakistan should withdraw its forces from the areas which it has forcibly occupied.
  3. On January 1, 1948, the two countries agreed to stop war.
  4. According to the resolution of the Security Council, the future of the princely state was to be decided by the "will of the people", but since Pakistan did not withdraw its forces from PoK, it could not happen.

1948 to 1953


 In 1948, Sheikh Abdullah of the "National Conference" became the Wazire-e-Azam (Prime Minister) of Jammu and Kashmir. He implemented land reforms but the center was suspicious of Sheikh Abdullah's 
intentions regarding J&K.

As a result, Sheikh Abdullah was dismissed in 1953 and kept under house arrest till 
1964.

Period from 1953 to 1975

 After his release in 1964, Sheikh Abdullah formed the "Plebiscite Front" and demanded the opinion of 
the people of the state.

The stand of the Indian leaders was clear that there is no justification for a plebiscite 
until Pakistan gives up illegal occupation. In 1975, there was an agreement between Indira-Sheikh Abdullah, as a result, Sheikh Abdullah left the demand for 'referendum' and joined the National Conference and became the Chief Minister of J&K with the support of Congress.

The period from 1977 to 1987

  1. National Conference was victorious in the 1977 elections and Sheikh Abdullah became the Chief Minister.In 1981, Farooq Abdullah was made the President of the party. In 1982, after the death of Sheikh Abdullah, Dr. Farooq Abdullah became the CM. Soon this government was dismissed.
  2. Due to the agreement between Sheikh Abdullah - Indira, people's faith in the democratic process increased, but after the dismissal of the Farooq government, the trust of the people of Kashmir was broken and the people were furious.
  3. The National Conference under the leadership of Farooq Abdullah got a resounding success in the 1984 elections. In 1986, the National Conference made an electoral alliance with the Congress and in the 1987 elections, the alliance won.

Rebel attitude and after

  1. According to political analysts, the 1987 elections were rigged and ignored by the central government. People were disillusioned with the state government and the central government. Political crisis has arisen in the state which gradually took the form of rebellion.
  2. In January 1990, when Shri Jagmohan was appointed as the Governor of J&K, Farooq Abdullah resigned saying that he was not consulted in the appointment of the Governor. 
  3. Pakistan-backed insurgency  By 1989, Pak-backed insurgent elements had become quite active in the state. The main target of militant violence were Kashmiri Pandits, Sikhs, government employees and army personnel. The situation worsened and in 1991, the Lok Sabha elections were not even held in Jammu and Kashmir. Militant activities continued in the name of "Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front".
  4.  In 1966, assembly elections were held in the state and the National Conference government was formed under the leadership of Farooq Abdullah and demanded regional autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir.
The 2002 elections were held in a fair manner and the PDP and Congress coalition government was formed.

Separatism and its aftermath

 After 1989, separatist politics raised its head. There are three sections in this –

1. A section of separatists wants to make Kashmir a separate nation.

2. The second section wants to merge Kashmir with Pakistan.

3. The third section wants Kashmir to remain a part of the Indian Union but with more autonomy.

  1.  The grievance of the people of Ladakh is about backwardness and neglectful treatment.
  2.   In 2009, Omar Abdullah became the Chief Minister of the state.
  3.  In 2015, a coalition government of PDP and BJP was formed and Mehbooba Mufti became the CM after the death of Mufti Mohammad in January 7,2016. The coalition government fell in June, 2018.
  4.  In the early years extremism got support but now people want peace. At present, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh have been made separate Union Territories) on August 5, 2019 by abolishing "Article 370 and Section 35A" and this order has become effective from October 31, 2019.

Dravidian movement

1. "The north thrives even as the south decays" is a very popular slogan of the Dravidian movement.

2. This movement was the first and most powerful expression of regionalism sentiments in Indian politics.
  1. A leadership section of this movement wanted to create an independent Dravidian state, but this movement never went on the path of armed struggle.
  2. The reins of this movement were in the hands of E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker 'Periyar'. Periyar means 'old manor 'great man'.
  3. This movement led to the formation of a political organization "Dravida Kazhagam".
  4. This organization was strongly opposed to Brahminism and emphasized the prestige of regional pride, denying the political, economic and cultural dominance of North India.
  5. Due to lack of support in the southern states, this movement remained confined to Tamil Nadu.
  6. Later this Dravida Kazhagam split into two factions and the legacy of the movement centered around the party formed by Annadurai in 1949 (DMK- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam).
  7. DMK entered politics in 1953 with three major demands –
First: - Denying the cultural influence, languages and names of North India. Opposed to renaming 'Kallakudi
railway station as 'Dalmiyapuram'.

Secondly: Tamil culture and history should be given more importance in the curriculum of schools and colleges.

Third: The party was against the introduction of craft education in schools, saying that the craft education program was a brahminical idea.

The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam launched a vigorous agitation against the imposition of Hindi on South India. The success of the 1965 anti-Hindi agitation made the DMK popular.
 
After political movements, the DMK got a big success in the 1967 assembly elections and 
formed the government, only then the Dravidian parties dominated the politics of Tamil Nadu.

Karunanidhi became CM after Annadurai's death in 1969. In 1972, famous actor MG Ramachandran formed a party called "Anna DMK".
Jayalalithaa became the head of the party after the death of Ramachandran in 1987.

All India Anna DMK describes itself as the rightful owner of the Dravidian heritage. Several parties came into existence in the 1990s like MDMK (Marumcharli Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam), PMK (Pattali Makkal Katchi), DMDK (Desia 
Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam). These parties kept alive the issue of regional pride.

Regional politics was 
considered a threat to the Indian nation, but the politics of Tamil Nadu is a good example of the spirit of cooperation between regionalism and nationalism.

Punjab : Demand of Khalistani


 The movement for regional aspirations in Punjab was based on both religion and politics. The form of the Akali Dal, established in 1920, has been religious-political from the beginning.

Before independence, his 
movement went on to control the Gurudwaras.
 
States were reorganized on linguistic basis in 1956 but Punjab was not made a separate state. In the 
1960s, a movement was launched for Punjab province under the leadership of Master Tara Singh and Santa Fateh Singh.

As a result of the partition of Punjab in 1966, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (Union 
Territory) came into existence.

Political struggle :-

 After the reorganization of the Punjab province, the Akali Dal formed coalition governments in 1967 and 1977. Despite the demarcation of the province, the political position of the Akali Dal was in shambles because:-

(i). The central government had dismissed the state government even before the completion of its term.

(ii). The Akali Dal did not enjoy much support from the Hindus of Punjab.

(iii). The Sikh community was also divided along caste and class lines. Congress had more support among Dalits, be it Sikhs or Hindus.

 It was in these circumstances that in the 1970s a section of the Akalis raised the demand for autonomy for Punjab.

In 1973, a resolution was passed in a conference held at Anandpur Sahib, in which regional autonomy was defined as follows: -

(i). The control of the Government of India will be limited only to security, external affairs, traffic, communication and currency matters.

(ii). Centre-State relations should be redefined and President's Rule should not be imposed in the State under 
 Art-356.

(iii). Punjabi speaking areas of Haryana and Himachal should be included in Punjab.

(iv). The management of Gurdwaras and the speech of the Sikh community in Punjab were announced.
 
 After the Akali Dal government was dismissed in 1980, the Akali Dal launched a movement on the issue of water sharing with the neighboring state.

Some religious leaders raised the demand for an 'autonomous Sikhidentity and the extremists raised the demand for "Khalistan".

Cycle of Violence


 In 1980, a government was formed in Punjab under the leadership of Darbara Singh.

Congress took the help of Sikh religious leader Bhindranwale to get the support of Sikhs. Soon the movement went into the 
hands of extremists and took the form of an armed rebellion.

The militants made their headquarters at the Sikh 
shrine "Golden Temple" in Amritsar and the Golden Temple was turned into an armed fort.

Operation Bluestar and Anti-Sikh Riots

 Gurdwaras were fortified in Punjab and arms and ammunition were stored in them.

The situation worsened so much that the Government of India launched a military operation in June 1984 codenamed "Operation Blue Star" to free the Golden 
Temple from extremist elements.

In this action, 325 people including 59 soldiers were killed and the temple and Akal Takht 
were damaged.

The religious sentiments of the Sikhs were hurt by this step taken by Indira Gandhi.

On October 31, 1984, Prime Minister Gandhi's bodyguards (Satwant Singh and Beant Singh) assassinated him.

The people were bereaved by this incident and during the next 72 hours, the capital of the country came under the grip of fierce fighting.

More than 3000 Sikh men, women and children were killed in Delhi. The miscreants also targeted educational institutions and places of worship.

Hundreds of Sikhs were also killed in places like Kanpur, Bokaro and Chas.

Sikhs felt sad for two reasons

(i) The police and the administration remained silent spectators, the army had to be called in to maintain peace.

(ii). The perpetrators of this violence were not effectively punished.

In 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh regretted the 1984 bloodshed in Parliament and apologized to the nation 
for the anti-Sikh violence.

Peace Talks Between the Bhindarawale


 Upon coming to power after the 1984 elections, the new prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, began talks 
with moderate Akali leaders.

An agreement was signed in 1985 with the then Akali President Harchand Singh 
Longowal, which is called the "Rajiv Gandhi-Logonwala Pact" or "Punjab Pact".

Main Provisions of Punjab Pact


(i). A commission will be set up to settle the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.

(ii). Chandigarh will be made the capital of Punjab alone.

(iii). A tribunal will be set up for sharing of Ravi and Beas river water so that Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan can get their due share.

(iv). Families affected by terrorist violence in Punjab will get proper compensation.

(v). Special Protection Acts will be withdrawn.

 Militant leaders could not tolerate the lenient attitude of Sant Logwal. The cycle of violence continued for nearly a decade. Meanwhile Sant Longowal was murdered on Aug 20, 1985.

Several human rights violations took place in the state to quell the violence.
 
 In Punjab, the Akali Dal was divided into several factions – (i). Talwandi faction
(ii). Logonwal group 
(iii). Badal group and
(iv) Tohra group.

President's rule was imposed in Punjab in 1987 and it was extended several times for six months.

After 5 years in 1992, elections were held in Punjab, which was boycotted by all the Akali factions. Only 24% voted in the election. Congress government formed in Punjab.

The main achievement of the government was that peace was established in Punjab by isolating the terrorists from the 
mainstream.

 In 1997, the Akali Dal (Badal) and Bharatiya Janata Party alliance got a big victory. Once again the questions of economic development and social transformation became prominent in Punjab.

Although the identity of religion is important for the people here, but politics has now started on the path of secularism.

Movements in North East

 
 The 1980s saw a turning point in Northeast regional aspirations. There are 7 states in this region which are called "Seven Sisters". The total population of the country resides in this region, but this population is double in terms of area. The 22 kilometer long "Rahadari" connects this area with the rest of India.

This region shares borders with China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. The region is India's gateway to South-East Asia.
 
 During the British period, the people of the North-East used to lead an isolated life. This is a hilly area.

The Khasi Hills of Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya were separate princely states.

After 1947, there was a 
comprehensive political reorganization of the area –

(i). Nagaland became a state in 1963.

(ii). Manipur, Tripura and
Meghalaya became states in 1972.

(iii). Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were given statehood in 1987.
 
 Due to the partition of India, the states of the North-East were isolated, due to which their economy was adversely affected and these areas did not develop.

The politics here also remained within its ambit. The Northeast remained in the grip of three types of movements –

1. Movement for autonomy
2. Separatist movement
3. Movement against outsiders (refugees)
 
 Economic backwardness of the area, complex social structure, India's large international border and poor communication system make the political nature very sensitive.

Demand for Autonomy For North East

  1.  By the end of the 19th century, the entire North-East region came under the jurisdiction of the British Government. Except for Manipur and Tripura, all the rest were part of "Assam province". Those who did not consider themselves as Assamese broke away from Assam and started demanding separate statehood. Some such separatist forces also became active who dreamed of an "independent government" breaking ties with the Union of India.
  2.  To break away from Assam, tribal community leaders formed the "Eastern India Tribal Union" which transformed into the more comprehensive "All Party Hills Conference" in 1960. At different times, the central government divided Assam to form Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Tripura and Manipur were also given statehood.
  3.  Tripura was ruled by the Maharajas till 1949, became a Union Territory in 1956, and was given full statehood in 1972. 

Demand for separate Bodoland

 By 1972, the Northeast had been reorganized but the Bodo community of Assam launched a movement for a separate Bodoland.

Bodo militant groups were – Bodo LiberationTigers –B.L.T., National Democratic
Front Of Bodoland – N.D.F.B.

Their movement was violent. The central government rejected the demand for a 
separate Bodo state. On February 10, 2003, an agreement was reached between the Central Government, the Government of Assam and the Bodo Liberation Tigers under which it was decided that a "Bodoland Territorial Council" would be formed and in January 2004, the Bodo language was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.

Recently the Bodo tribe has been given the status of an autonomous council.

Secessionist Movements


 The autonomy movements did not cause as much damage as the separatist movements. In the states of Nagaland and Mizoram bordering with foreign countries, the rebellion had taken a fierce form.

1. Nagaland :- The Naga insurgency is the oldest insurgency in the country. The Naga National Council led by 
A. Z. Phizo launched an armed struggle to secede from India. The Naga territories were made a separate administrative region in 1957, but the Nagas were not happy with this arrangement.

Nagaland was made a full fledged state of the Union in 1963. Insurgent groups remained active in Nagaland. They mixed with insurgent 
groups operating in Manipur, Assam and eastern Arunachal Pradesh. Myanmar, which borders Nagaland, gives them shelter.

 Greater Nagaland :- Now Nagas started demanding "Greater Nagaland". They demand that the Naga- dominated areas of the north-eastern states of Manipur, Assam and Arunachal should also be included in 
Nagaland. Manipur will be halved if Greater Nagaland is formed.

2. Mizoram :-
 Mizoram was a district of Assam. Christians are in majority in Mizoram. Some Mizo people believed that they were not a part of India, they were forcibly assimilated in India without their consent. There, the Mizo National Front led by Laldenga launched a separatist movement.

In 1965 they sent a memorandum to the 
Government of India stating that their demand was "the establishment of an independent sovereign state of 
Mizoram".

Adopted the policy of violence and sabotage to get their demands accepted. The rebels were supported by Bangladesh. Army had to be called in to control the situation.

Mizoram Agreement: -
 In June 1986, an agreement was reached between Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Lal Denga, under which the Mizo National Front would not involve in illegal activities and Mizoram would be given full statehood.

Mizoram was made the 23rd state of India in 1987. Lal Denga became the first Chief Minister of the state on 20 February 1987.

Movement Against Outsiders

 Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh were carved out of Assam, yet Assam is the most populous state among the seven sisters. In the last 40-50 years, Bangladeshi infiltrators in Assam have become a big threat to the economy, identity and cultural identity there.

People of Assamese origin are 
apprehensive that they might become a minority.
 
 The country's population growth rate in 1961 and 1971 was 21.6% and 24.8% respectively, while the growth 
rate of Assam was about 35%. Assam's population would have been about 80 lakhs at the country's population 
growth rate but it has become 1,95 lakhs.

The outsiders were encroaching upon the land, tea gardens and 
other economic resources of Assam and were willing to work for low wages. As a result, the natives of Assam started facing the problem of unemployment.
Beginning of Mass Movement
 
 On October 10, 1979, All Assam Students Union (AASU-All Assam Students Union) and All Assam Sangram Parishad (All Assam Sangram Parishad) started the movement to expel the foreigners. The movement was against illegal immigration, dominance of Bengali and other people and enrollment of lakhs of immigrants in voter lists.

Their demand was :-
I. Those who settled in Assam after 1951 should be thrown out.
II. Save Assam from the invasion of immigrants.
III. Borders should be protected by installing barbed wire and guarding.
 
 The leaders of the movement showed peace and understanding, yet many people were killed in the encounter between the agitators and the police. In 1981, a 'statewide' bandh and road blockade campaign was launched. Rail traffic affected Oil could not be supplied to the oil refinery at Barauni in Bihar.

President's rule was imposed in the state and elections were held in 1983 on the basis of voter list of 1979. On February 27, 1983, Hiteshwar Saikia of the Congress became the CM.

Assam Pact of 1985


 After 6 years of instability, an agreement was reached between Rajiv Gandhi and AASU in August, 1985. 

Its main points are as follows: -
(i). Expulsion of foreigners from Assam between 1965 and 1971.
(ii). Illegal immigrants should be denied voting rights.
(iii). Barbed wire should be installed on the Assam-Bangladesh border.
(iv). Action is assured against officers and policemen who commit excesses.
(v). Assembly and Lok Sabha elections should be held by November, 1985 on the basis of revised voter list. 

Result of Assam Pact


 Assam peace process gained momentum, assembly elections were held in December, 1985.
The agitators formed a regional party called "Assam Gana Parishad" to contest the elections, which won an 
absolute majority in the assembly. Prafulla Kumar Mahant, who was the leader of the movement, became the 
Chief Minister of Assam on December 24, 1985.

Mahant's slogan was "Golden Assam". The issue of identification of foreigners in Assam is still not resolved. The Illegal Migrants Determination 
By Tribunal Act (IMDT Act) was enacted in 1983 during the tenure of Indira Gandhi.

It was flawed, the Supreme 
Court declared the act illegal. The same problem exists in Tripura as the natives there have become a minority.
Chakma refugees remain a problem in Arunachal too.
Sikkim's Merger to India

  1. Sikkim is a small hill state located in the Eastern Himalayas. Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, is in this state.In 1890, the British government took administrative control over Sikkim. At the time of independence, the reins of Sikkim were in the hands of Raja Chogyal.
  2. In 1949, India had taken Sikkim under its protection by making a treaty with it. Internal affairs were in the hands of the king, but defense and foreign affairs were under the control of the Government of India.
  3. The Nepali population in Sikkim was increasing rapidly, in protest against this, the Lepcha and Bhutia people launched a movement to merge Sikkim into India. 
  4. In 1974, Sikkim Congress got a huge majority in the Sikkim Legislative Assembly. This party was in favor of the merger of Sikkim with India. The proposal for the merger of India was passed in the assembly, on which a referendum was held. The public voted in favor of the merger.
In 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Union of India. The king of Sikkim was not in this favor but the people were in favor of merger. Accomodation and National Integration
 
Regional aspirations have expressed themselves in many forms, such as autonomy movements, separatist movements, insurgency and terrorism.

During the 1980s, Indian politics was in the grip of these tensions and the ability of democratic politics to meet 
these demands was put to the test.

The following lessons can be learned from these examples:-

1. Regional aspirations are an integral part of democratic politics. In a vast country like India, this expression 
is not a phenomenon outside the democratic grammar. Similar incidents have been happening in different 
countries - Great Britain, Sri Lanka, Spain. India is a big democracy and preparations to deal with such aspirations must have been kept constant.
2. There is no better form of governance than democracy, so instead of suppressing the regional aspirations 
of the people, it is better to adopt the method of democratic dialogue. The government showed seriousness about the extremism of Punjab, the problem of North-East, the student movement of Assam, Kashmir problem etc. and an atmosphere of harmony was established in many areas only through dialogue.
3. Power sharing must be understood. It is not enough to just build a democratic structure, it is necessary to 
make various regional parties and groups partners in the central polity. The demand for regional autonomy and small states should be given weightage in determining the country's destiny.
4. Inequality in different areas on the basis of economic development, backward areas will face discrimination.
Therefore, the backwardness of the backward states and areas of the states should be removed on the basis of priority. Regional imbalance was created due to the policies of the Government of India, this imbalance has to 
be removed.
5. It is the result of the foresight of the makers of the constitution that they were aware of the differences.
The federal system adopted by the framers of the constitution is very flexible. Most states have equal rights, while special provisions have been made for J&K and some states in the Northeast. In the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution, various tribes have been given full autonomy to preserve their conduct, behavior and traditional customs.

Liberation of Goa


  1. Alfonso de Albuquerque laid the foundation of Portuguese dominion in India. He was established in Goa in 1509.
  2. After gaining independence, the Indian government asked Portugal to transfer Goa, Daman and Diu to India, but Portugal replied "Goa is a small sapling of Europe planted in Asia and is an integral part of Portugal".
  3. In 1954 there was civil rebellion in Goa. Patriots and Satyagrahis took control of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
  4. Portuguese officials also forced conversion in Goa.
  5. In 1955 thousands of independent Goan volunteers entered Goa. 17 Indians killed in firing by Portuguese officers. Diplomatic relations between Portugal and Delhi were broken. Operation Vijay
  6. In December 1961, the Government of India planned "Operation Vijay" to liberate Goa. Indian troops marched into Goa and entered Daman and Diu. Portuguese rule came to an end within 48 hours.
  7. The leaders of Maharashtrian Gomantak Party wanted Goa to be merged with Maharashtra. In the "referendum" of 1967, people expressed their desire for a separate identity.
  8. Goa, Daman and Diu were merged into a union territory. Goa was given full statehood in 1987.

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