NCERT NOTES: New Centres of Power (2022-23) Political Science Class 12

NCERT Notes Of Political Science Class 12, Chapter 2 New Centres of Power (Alternate Centre Of Power) In English 2022-23. NCERT Notes Of New Centres of Power will help students score 100% marks in CBSE Board Exams for Class 12. Here we have provided ncert notes for class 12 Political science chapter 2 New Centres of Power For English Medium.


New Centres of Power 


After the breakup of the two-polar system in world politics after the 1990s, it became clear that new centers of political and economic power would limit America's influence or dominance.


The European Union in Europe and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Asia emerged as a powerful power. Both groups sought solutions to the historical animosity and problems that ran in their regions. China's economic rise had a significant impact on world politics.


  Regional Organization


Europeon Union

  The structure of Europe fell into disrepair in the Second World War. America propounded the "Truman Doctrine" to stop the spread of communism, and in 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall presented the "European Regeneration Program". 

Whose purpose was to liberate Europe from hunger, poverty and economic disorder. The Soviet Union was also invited to this task, but the Union refused, calling it a capitalist move.


 Organisation For European Economic Corporation (1948)


 The OEEC was established in 1948 under the Marshall Plan. In this plan, about $ 17 million was provided to European countries from 1948 to 1952. Which saved Europe from economic decline and the fall of the Communists. 


Europeon Council


  In 1949, 10 countries together formed the European Council, its main objective was the spirit of economic integration among European countries, after which many more countries joined.


European Economic Community (1957)


 The European Council thought that political cooperation between countries should increase. Therefore, in 1957, the European Economic Community was formed by the "Treaty of Rome". Initially there were 6 countries, later 4 more countries joined. 

In 1986, 12 countries became members of the "Economic Community" or "European Common Market". Their purpose was to remove the rules of import-export tax and visa etc.


 European Parliament

 Representatives for this parliament were elected by the parliaments of the member states. By the "Treaty of Luxembourg" of 1970, the European Parliament got the authority to direct how the member states should prepare the annual budget. 


 European Union (1993)

 Several events occurred from 1957 to 1992, due to which the form of the European Community changed and it took the form of "European Union". After the "Maschritt Treaty" of 1992, on November 1, 1993, the European Economic Community became the "European Union". 


The following things were prominent in the Mashtrit Treaty


  •   Member countries will have a common foreign policy and security policy.
  •  Member countries Will co-operate with each other for the prevention of drugs and crimes in the field of immigration.
  • A common parliament for Europe would be a centralized bank and a currency. 

The European Union has tremendous economic, political, diplomatic and military influence. It was the world's largest economy in 2005 and had a GDP-(Gross Domestic Production) of more than $12,000 billion. In 2016 it was a $17 trillion economy.


Members Of EU


                     By 1995, 15 countries had joined. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the countries of Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland joined the union on 15 December 2004, increasing the number of members to 25. The membership increased to 28 with the joining of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Croatia on 1 July 2013.

  • Croatia(2013) was the 28th member of the EU.
  •  After Brexet of Britain(31Jan,2020), there are 27 members of EU now.


Major Organs of the European Union

  

 The European Union has a flag, an anthem, a foundation day and its own currency, the euro, which is controlled by the central bank (European Central Bank). The flag of the European Union is decorated with a circle of 12 gold colored stars, they represent the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe.


 Principal Organ of European Union 

  1.  European Commission
  2.  European Council of Ministers 
  3.  European Parliament (whose members are elected by direct election for 5 years)
  4.  Economic and Social Committee  
  5.  Judicial Court 


 Objectives of European Union 

  1.   Economic integration 
  2.  Development of agricultural system and industries of the member countries
  3. Common Foreign and Security Policy
  4. Common currency and central bank
  5. Environment improvements

 The European Union has taken drastic measures to protect human rights. In 1995, the European Union broke political ties with Nigeria.


 Role/Influences of European Union in World Politics

Economic influences 

  1. The Union has a common market where there is free flow of goods, persons, capital and technology between the member states.
  2. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the European Union in 2005 was about 12000 billion dollars.
  3. The EU's unified currency, the Euro, came into circulation on January 1, 2002. Initially adopted by 12 countries and by 17 countries at the end of 2011.
  4. The European Union has a common agricultural policy. The European Agricultural Commission buys more food from farmers at reasonable rates than is needed. The Commission exports these substances.
  5. The European Union influences the economic affairs of the world through organized power.


 Political Influences

 France is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a country of the European Union, which is capable of influencing world politics. Also, the union's participation in world trade is 3 times that of the US, so the union talks with the US and China with full intimidation.


Military Influences

 The Union has the world's largest army in terms of military strength and its defense budget is the largest in the world after the US. France, a member country of the union, is full of nuclear power, they have a stock of about 200 bombs. The association ranks second in the world in space science and communication technology. 

  • Because of the Union's own foreign and defense policy, Germany and France opposed the US invasion of Iraq.

 The Schengen Agreement

 The Schengen Agreement is a treaty that led to the creation of the Schengen Area of Europe, in which internal border checks have been largely eliminated.

 It was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten member states of the then European Economic Community (Belgium, France, West Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands) near the city of Schengen, Luxembourg.


SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation


  The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and political association of eight countries in South Asia. The Conference of Heads of State of South Asian countries India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan was held in Dhaka on 7th & 8th December, 1985.

 SAARC was established on 8 December 1985 by the new union of these 7 countries. In April 2007, at the 14th summit of SAARC, Afghanistan became its 8th member. On the initiative of former Bangladesh President Zia-ur-Rahman, 7 heads of state of South Asia together paved the way for the birth of SAARC in April 1981.        

 The remaining members of the federation (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka) except the Maldives are part of the Indian subcontinent.

  • The headquarter of SAARC is in Kathmandu Nepal.
  •  Its current Secretary General is Asela Veerakoon of Sri Lanka. He assumed the post on 1, March 2020 in place of Arjun Bahadur Thapa of Nepal.             

 After the establishment of SAARC, the Secretariat was established on 16 January 1987 after the Second Summit (Bengaluru). The office of the Secretary General of the Secretariat is kept for 2 years.

Institutions of SAARC

 According to the charter, the following institutions have been mentioned 

  1.  Council of Ministers 
  2. Standing Committee 
  3. Technical Committee 
  4.  Program Committee
  5.  Secretariat 

Determination of cooperation areas

 9 areas of cooperation of SAARC:  Agriculture, health services, meteorological department, postal telegraph services, rural development, science and technical cooperation, telecommunication and transport, sports, tourism and arts and cultural cooperation were mentioned. 

Two years later, at the Dhaka Summit, a few more topics were added to the list - the problem of terrorism, drug trafficking and the role of women in regional development, which has now increased to 12.

                  

 The SAPTA (South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement) was signed at the 7th Summit (Dhaka, April 1993). It was implemented from December 1995. 

SAARC has played an important role in the economic development of the member states of South Asia. In order to increase economic cooperation, in 1995, SAARC countries allowed the implementation of SAPTA from the year 2006. 

Main Objectives of SAARC

  1.   Self-reliance :- To increase the collective self-reliance of the nations of South Asia.
  2. Public Welfare:- To improve the welfare and standard of living of the people of South Asia region.
  3. Rapid development : To accelerate the economic, social and cultural development of the region. 
  4. Mutual cooperation:- Mutual trust, understanding and evaluation of each other's problems between Member countries through multilateral methods.
  5. Development of Science Sector :- To increase active cooperation and mutual assistance in economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.
  6. Cooperation with developing nations : To increase cooperation with other developing nations


Principles of SAARC

  1. Principle of Mutual Benefit :- Adhering to the principles of cooperation, equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations and profit within the organization's structure.
  2. Relative Coordination :- This type of cooperation will not replace bilateral and multilateral cooperation but will complement them.
  3. Acceptance of the old Liabilities : - This type of cooperation will not be antithetical to bilateral and multilateral responsibility.


 Importance of SAARC in the Economic Field

The importance of the economic cooperation program adopted by the SAARC countries is as follows :-

  1.  Due to economic cooperation, trade is encouraged by the removal of various types of taxes on each other by the member states.
  2.  Cooperation in the economic field has strengthened the relations between SAARC countries.
  3.  Due to each other's cooperation, the standard of living of the people of this region has improved.
  4. SAARC has accelerated economic growth which has improved the economy of South Asian countries.


 Limitations of SAARC

 Following are the limitations of SAARC

  1.  The member countries of SAARC are not able to fully trust a country like India.
  2. The bitter relations between India and Pakistan pose a hindrance to the success of SAARC.
  3. Illiteracy, unemployment and poverty are found in the member countries of SAARC, which hinders its success.
  4. The internal turmoil and instability of most countries are obstacles in its path.


The following suggestions can be given for the success of SAARC

  1. For the success of SAARC, there should be peace and stability in SAARC countries.
  2. Its member countries should trust India.
  3. Member countries should make efforts to remove illiteracy, unemployment and poverty in this region.
  4.  Indo-Pak bilateral ties should be kept away from SAARC.


 ASEAN -Association Of South-East Asian Nations

 The region of Southeast Asia suffered from European and Japanese colonialism before and during the Second World War. After the war, he faced problems like nation building, economic backwardness and poverty.

The Bandung Conference and the Non-Aligned Movement were not effective in establishing third world countries and Asian unity. On August 8, 1967, 5 countries of the region (Indonesia, Malaysia), Philippines, Singapore and Thailand established “ASEAN” by signing the Declaration in Bangkok.

 In subsequent years five other countries – Brunei (1984), Darussalam, Vietnam (1985), Myanmar and Cambodia also joined ASEAN. Now the member number is 10.

  •   Head office in Jakarta(Indonesia).     


Aims of ASEAN

  1.  To establish peace and security in the region through mutual cooperation.
  2.   To accelerate the economic development of the region and promote regional cooperation for the same.
  3.   Achievement of social and cultural development with economic development.
  4.  To develop mutual assistance and cooperation in the political, social, economic, cultural, commercial, scientific, technical, administrative fields among the member states.
  5.  Finding solutions to various common problems through collective collaboration.
  6.  Establish a common market in the region.
  7. To increase trade activities among the member states and to promote mutual trade. 
  8. Promoting the rule of law and stability within the scope of the United Nations              

   The style of informal, non-confrontational and cooperative reconciliation came to be known as the "ASEAN Way".Respect for national sovereignty has been important in the functioning of ASEAN.   

       The ASEAN logo on the ASEAN flag with 10 stalks of paddy in a circle pointing to the 10 member states. The circle represents unity of purpose.


Role of ASEAN and its three pillars (2003)

  As of 2019, ASEAN has completed 52 impressive years of its existence, its three main areas or pillars are as follows-

  1. The ASEAN Security Community

The ASEAN security community is based on an agreement not to escalate territorial disputes to military conflicts. On the basis of the 2003 agreement, member states committed to promoting peace, fairness, cooperation, non-intervention and respecting the rights of sovereignty and inter-state interdependence.

Established "ASEAN Regional Forum" in 1994 to coordinate the security and foreign policy of ASEAN countries. 

2. The ASEAN Economic Community

 ASEAN is primarily an economic organization. It is much smaller than the USA and European Union but has developed rapidly in recent years. Its economic achievements are as follows:-

  1. Attempted to make ASEAN nations a “free trade zone” according to the Bangkok Summit (1995).
  2.  ASEAN countries are adopting liberal policies in the field of capital, labor and other services.
  3.  An attempt was made to set up a “Dispute Resolution Mechanism” to resolve economic disputes.
  4. According to the Bangkok Summit of 1995, dialogue should be maintained with foreign countries especially South Korea, India and Japan. 

3. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

 ASEAN countries tried to promote cultural activities. The expansion of telecommunications services among ASEAN nations helped to broadcast shared cultural programs. To promote tourism service, the rules related to "Visa" were relaxed. 


India & ASEAN

  India maintained good relations with ASEAN countries following the "Look East Policy (1990s)". 

India entered into a free trade agreement with ASEAN countries so that 80% of trade could be free. Narendra Modi's visit to Myanmar for the 12th India-ASEAN Summit and instead of "Look East Policy" now name "Act East (2014)". 

Vision Document 2020

The highlights of ASEAN Vision 2020 are as follows:-

  1. The ASEAN Vision 2020 emphasized an outgoing role of ASEAN in the international community.
  2. Under the Hanoi Action Plan, various measures were prescribed for regional economic integration, trade liberalizations and increased financial cooperation.
  3. ASEAN Vision 2020 envisages creating an ASEAN Security Community, an ASEAN Economic Community and an ASEAN Social and Cultural Community

  "Vision Document 2020" is a historical document. The ASEAN group decided to oppose non-democratic changes like government coup in Thailand, unrest in the Philippines, military dictatorship in Myanmar.

 ASEAN mediated in Cambodia dispute and East Timor crisis. At the 2007 Philippines summit, it was decided to hold two meetings a year and to include China in the "free trade zone". By the year 2020, the ASEAN country will become a market in the field of “capital investment and services”.

ASEAN Regional Forum :- Australia, Canada, China, European Union, India, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, USA.


ASEAN's relevance

The importance of ASEAN has increased with the changing times:

  1. Regular meeting of this organization is being held since 1999.
  2. After India and China became associate members, its importance has increased tremendously.
  3. It has focused on creating free trade zones in terms of investment, labor and services. America and China have shown special interest in this proposal.
  4. After 1991, India adopted a "Look East" policy and as a result, economic relations with ASEAN, China, Japan and South Korea were strengthened. 
  5. India has also signed a free trade agreement with two ASEAN member countries Singapore and Thailand


The Rise of Chinese Economy

  During World War II, there was an empire of unemployment, poverty and economic exploitation in China. Foreigners had rights over big factories etc. 

In 1949, the rule of China passed from the hands of Mao Chiang-Kai-shek to the communists. Became a republican country on October 1, 1949. China broke its ties with the capitalist world and adopted the communist system

 Controlled Economy: Owned by State

 The Mao Zedong government emphasized on controlled and planned development like the Soviet Union. State owned large factories, banks, businesses, rail travel, water transport, big companies. The land of the big landlords was distributed among the farmers.

  1. Acheivements of Controlled economy

  •  In China, the vast population was engaged in constructive work. Build dams on rivers, which controlled floods. 
  • "Right to work” to citizens, financial assistance in the condition of old age and illness, welfare schemes or the poor, food, clothing, medicine, education for children became the responsibility of the government.
  • China's growth rate was 5% to 6%, but the growth rate was affected due to population growth. Industrial production was not growing fast, foreign trade was negligible. Some policy decisions were taken in 1970.

  1.  26 Oct. In 1971, China was included in the UNO and got permanent membership of the Security Council.
  2.   In 1972, he ended his political and economic isolation by making relations with America.
  3. In 1973, Prime Minister Chou En Lai proposed to the party to modernize agriculture, industry, national security and science and technology.
  4. After Mao's death in 1976, in 1978, the then leader Deng Xiapeng, under the "reformist and liberal" policy, created an "open door policy", which China called the "second revolution".       

China opened the economy in a phased manner instead of following "shock therapy"

 Privatisation &market economy

 The leader Deng Xiopeng said "the path should be the goal, not the way".Took the following steps:

  1. Privatisation of agriculture:- Agricultural production in the "controlled economy" was reduced due to collective farming. Farming has now been privatized.That is, now the farmers were the owners of their agriculture. 
  2. New Economic Policy:- Under the new economic policy, China created special economic zones in Shanghai and other maritime Areas where foreign capitalists could set up their factories and industries. Foreign direct was encouraged.

  •  Membership of the World Trade Organization and permission for foreign investment in many other industries

      

In 2001 the team joined the WTO. In 2004, foreign companies entered the insurance sector.

Changes in Property Laws  

 In March 2007, the property laws were drastically changed so that farmers are not unfairly deprived of Their property.


Results of New Economic Policy

  1.  Today China has become the world's highest producer of steel and cement. China has a special place in world trade.
  2.  Foreign companies are paying huge salaries to skilled employees and managers, as a result of which economic disparities have increased.
  3.  According to the report of the United Nations in 2006, along with economic development in China, unemployment is also large.

China has emerged as a tremendous economic power and is on the way to become the number one economy in the world.

 India-China Relations

 China is a very ancient country. India and China (before the twentieth century) never clashed in terms of spheres of influence. Therefore, direct political and cultural relations between the two were limited. 

The people of China sympathized with India's independence movement and India welcomed the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949. The famous slogan of the 1950s was "Hindi - Chinese Bhai Bhai". 

 Tibet & Border Dispute

China's eyes were on Tibet. In 1954, China accepted the sovereignty of Tibet. There was an agreement between India and China regarding Tibet, which was based on five principles which became the basis of "Panchsheel".

war of 1962

 By securing their authority over Tibet, the Chinese built paved roads on the borders of India and staked their claim on the areas of Arunachal and Ladakh of India. On October 20, 1962, they launched a fierce attack on Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh. 

India for this attack was not ready. China grabbed a lot of India's land. The war stopped on 21, 1962. Relations are not normal to this day due to border disputes.


Improvement in India-China Relations

  1. China's leadership changed in the late 70s. For China, instead of ideological issues, practical issues became prominent and China agreed to give up contentious issues. Since 1981, a period of negotiations to resolve the border dispute began. Sino-India relations Along with the strategic, economic aspects are also included.
  2.  In December 1988, the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China. Agreements for mutual cooperation in the field of border dispute settlement, cultural exchange, civil aviation and science and technology were signed.
  3. In 1996, the Chinese President visited India and agreed to reduce tensions and arms along the LAC. Since 1999, bilateral trade has been growing at an annual rate of 30%.
  4.  Nuclear tests in 1998 were justified by some in view of security from China. China has been instrumental in Pakistan's nuclear program. China's relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar are considered against the interests of South Asia. A program of cooperation to resolve border disputes and at the military level continues. Leaders and officials from China and India visit each other, which has improved relations between the two countries.


issues of dispute and conflict between India-China

At the World Trade Conference, BRICS (BRICS-Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea) and many other international stages, both the countries adopted similar policy but there are some controversial issues as well:-

  1. There is a border dispute between the two countries. The Mac Mohan line drawn in 1914 is not acceptable to China.
  2. China considers Kashmir a disputed area and a large number of Chinese soldiers are stationed in PoK.
  3. China is helping Pakistan in getting nuclear weapons
  4. China claims some parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim.
  5. China is spreading its feet in the Indian Ocean.
  6. Controversy over one belt one road (OBOR).

B.R.I.C.S.(Brazil,Russia,India,China,South Africa)


  1.  Group of five countries).
  2. BRICS (B.R.I.C.S.) is the title of a federation of emerging national economies.
  3.  It is also known as R-5 because the name of the currency of these five countries starts with 'R'.
  4. Brazil-Real, Russia-Rubal, India-Rupee, China- Renminbi(Yuan), South Africa-Rand. 
  5. The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India and China) met in New York City in September 2006 and began a series of high-level meetings. On 16 May 2007 a full-scale diplomatic meeting was held in “Yekaterinburg”, Russia. 
  6. Its founding members were Brazil, Russia, India, and China).
  7. It was established in 2009. The first formal summit of the BRIC grouping took place in Yekaterinburg, Russia on 16 June 2009. The main theme of the summit was "improving the global economic situation and improving financial institutions".
  8.  It was known as "BRIC (B.R.I.C.)" before the inclusion of South Africa on 24 December 2010.
  9. The 10th BRICS summit was held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 25–27 July 2018.
  10.  The 11th Annual Summit of BRICS was held on 13–14 November, 2019 in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil. Its theme was "economic growth for an innovative future". The President of the conference was Jair Bolsanaro.
  11. The 12th BRICS summit was held online in Russia in June 2020. The 13th BRICS summit was held in India on 9 September 2021. India hosted this conference for the third time. Earlier India has hosted this conference in 2012 and 2016. The 14th summit is proposed in China in 2022.
  12. Except Russia, all BRICS members are "developing or newly industrialized countries" whose economies are rapidly growing. These nations exercise significant influence on regional and global affairs. As of the year 2019, the five BRICS nations represent around 42% of the world's population and are estimated to contribute US$4 trillion to the combined foreign exchange reserves.
  13.  The combined GDP of these nations is US$15 trillion. BRICS countries contribute 23% to global GDP and play a significant role in about 18% of world trade.

 Objectives of BRICS

 BRICS has no constitution of its own, but on the basis of the declarations issued at the end of its conferences, its following objectives can be considered :-


  1.  To promote mutually beneficial cooperation among member countries in various fields, so as to accelerate development in these countries.
  2. Establishment of a just and equitable world order which is not dominated by any one group but is of multilateral nature. Its aim is to replace the Western-dominated global order with a new multilateral system.
  3. A just solution to the major issues of the current world like climate change, terrorism, world trade, nuclear energy etc. 
  4. Demand for democratization of decision-making processes in various global affairs and reforms in international institutions that are important in this sense, for example quota reforms in the International Monetary Fund.

 

  Achievements of B.R.I.C.S

        BRICS is an important organization in the world based on the size of the economy and the potential for growth in the post-cold war. In the last decade itself, this organization has made an important place on the economic scene in the world. it has two achievements:- 

  1.  First - BRICS has continuously strived for a multilateral, open and equitable world order in place of the Western capitalist dominated global order. Establishment of Development Bank as an alternative to World Bank is a concrete step in this direction.
  2. Second- BRICS countries have strengthened mutual cooperation in the field of economic, technical, and development in the last decade.

 

 

 New Development Bank

 In 2014, during the 6th summit in Portaleja, Brazil, BRICS leaders signed an agreement to establish a New Development Bank. 

The main areas of operation of the NDB are clean energy, transportation, sustainable urban development and economic cooperation among member countries. 

The NDB acts as a consultative mechanism among the BRICS members. The headquarter of NDB is in "Shanghai (China)".



 Weaknesses of B.R.I.C.S

  • First - There has been a difference in the declared policies of BRICS countries and their actual behavior.

China raises the demand for an integrated and democratic system from the platform of BRICS, but at the same time it wants to establish its supremacy over its neighbors in the South China Sea.

  • Second- The mutual dispute between the BRICS countries is very deep. And there is an undeclared strategic competition going on between them. Other differences including border dispute between India and China are well known.

Due to these disputes and weaknesses, BRICS according to its capability and efforts. It could not achieve success.

 

Country of Rising Sun JAPAN as New Centres of Power 

  1. Japan is a small country with an area of ​​3,77,765 square kilometers and a population of about 130 million.
  2. In World War II, American atomic bombs caused massive destruction and defeat.
  3. Today Japan is one of the world's major economic powers.
  4.  The economy of Japan is the third largest economy in the world. 
  5. The main industries of Japan are motor vehicles, fine measuring machines, chemicals, synthetics and shipbuilding.
  6. Today the entire world market is filled with Japanese brands, the main ones being – Sony, Panasonic, Canon, Suzuki, Honda.
  7. Japan is the only one in the G-8 (group of the world's eight major economies) from the continent of Asia.
  8. Japan has a major share in the budget of the United Nations.  
  9. In the constitution drafted in 1947, Japan renounced war and said in the preamble that "we the Japanese people seek everlasting peace and cooperation with all the countries of the world."
  10. Japan signed a "Security Treaty" with the US in 1951. Through this treaty, the US guaranteed Japan's security.
  11. "Economic and industrial development" became Japan's main goal after security was guaranteed.
  12. In 1964, Japan became a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

 

India's relations with Japan

 

  1. The Prime Minister of Japan visited India in April 2005.
  2.  He assured to help us in developing our infrastructure.
  3. Prime Minister of India visited Japan in December 2006. Several agreements were signed between the two countries.
  4.  Under the strategy and global partnership between India and Japan, the talk of cooperation in many areas has progressed, such as – defence, trade, science and technology.
  5. India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement was signed in 2011.
  6. Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Japan in August 2014. Japan has assured investment of $35 in India over the next 5 years. This amount will be spent on infrastructure building and skill development projects.
  7. The Prime Minister of Japan agreed to provide financial and technical assistance to India for running a bullet train on the Ahmedabad-Mumbai route. 
  8. The two countries will also cooperate in the field of natural gas and clean coal technology.
  9. During the visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Japan in 2016, an important agreement was signed between India and Japan on nuclear energy, under which Japan would provide nuclear fuel to India.
  10. In 2017, the two countries established the Japan-India Coordination Forum for the Development of Northeast India. This forum will focus on various projects for development in Northeast India.


 Israel as a New Centres of Power 


“The nation of Israel has emerged as the most powerful nation in terms of science and technology, defense and intelligence, apart from its economy. 

Israel, situated in the middle of the fiery politics of West Asian countries, has reached new heights of global political arena due to its indomitable capability, defence, technological innovation, industrialization and agricultural development. 

“Continuity Against Adversity” is the principle that today a small Jewish country, namely Israel, stands apart in contemporary world politics in general and in the Arab-majority West Asian region.


History of Israel


According to the Old Ahadnama, the Jewish scripture, the origin of Judaism begins with the "Prophet Abraham".Abraham had a son named "Isaac" and a grandson named "Jacob."Another name for Jacob was "Israel".

Jacob united the 12 tribes of Jews and united this nation of all these nations, because of the name of Israel, it came to be called "Israel".Israel means "a nation that is dear to God" in Hebrew.

  1. One of the most powerful countries in the world, "Israel" is the only country to follow Judaism in the world.
  2. The history of independence of India and Israel is similar, both achieved independence after a long struggle.
  3. Israel was part of "Palestine" before independence. Palestine was part of the "Ottoman" Empire.
  4. In 1878 the Ottoman Empire was 87% Muslim, 10% Christian and 3% Jewish.
  5. For the first time in 1900, the demand for "Israel self-government" arose, which was named the "Cianism" movement. After the Second World War the Ottoman Empire collapsed and Britain began to rule Palestine.
  6. Britain supported the demand for a separate country for the Jews by declaring "Well Force", Behind this was their policy of "divide and rule".
  7.  After this, the British agreed to the 'immigration' of the Jews, due to which a large number of Jews came to Palestine to occupy the land and start farming. The number of Jews continued to grow, causing conflict between Jews and Arabs in the region.
  8. In 1878, the number of Jews was only 3%, which increased to 38% in 1938. In 1930, the British decided to limit migration, but this made matters worse. Jewish fighters started fighting to end the British rule. given I
  9. Even after the end of World War II, Britain was weakened by 6 consecutive years of war till July 1946. The British Raj asked the UN to resolve this issue.
  10. In November 1947, the UN decided to divide Palestine into three parts, the first part to the "Jews", the second to the "Arabs" and the third to "Jerusalem (management of the international government)."
  11. English ended today on 14 May 1948 and Israel declared itself an independent country. Israel is a sovereign republic. Israel's capital is "Jerusalem".



 Israel's Economic Situation


  1. Israel is considered the most advanced and developed country in Southwest Asia and the Middle East in  economic development.
  2.  Israel's state-of-the-art university, academic quality and high technology is responsible for fostering rapid economic growth.
  3. Despite limited resources, agricultural and industrial development in the past decade has made Israel  largely self-sufficient in food production and economic.
  4.  Israel is a major export of diamonds, high technology equipment and pharmaceuticals. 
  5. Israel ranks third in the world in commercial terms. 
  6. Israel has more than 3500 technology companies, which is second only to Silicon Valley in the world. The quality of education has made Israel a big player in the economy.


 India Israel Relations


  1.  India officially recognized Israel on September 17, 1950.
  2. India's diplomatic relations with Israel were established in 1992.
  3. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao approved the start of diplomatic relations with Israel. During the tenure of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, there was a lot of effort to take relations with Israel to a new dimension.
  4. Israeli President Ariel Sharon visited India September,8-11,2003 (the first visit by an Israeli President).
  5. In 2015, for the first time, Indian President Pranab Mukherjee visited Israel.
  6. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Israel for the first time in July 2017.

 Military and Diplomatic Relations

  1. India and Israel have strengthened relations between India and Israel with the rise of terrorism.
  2. So far, India has launched eight military satellites with Israel through the ‘Indian Space Research Organisation". 


Agreement signed Between India Israel


  1.  MOU(Memorandum of Understanding) for the $40 million India-Israel Industrial, Research & Development  and Technology Investment Fund.
  2. MOU for water conservation in India
  3. MoU to meet the water needs in the states of India.
  4. India-Israel Development Corporation-Announcement of 3-Year Program for Agriculture (2018 to 2020)
  5.  Plan of cooperation for atomic clock between ISRO and Israel.
  6. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standard. Location accuracy can be increased by using it in GPS.
  7. MOU for GEO-LEO Optical Link
  8. MOU to power small satellites

South Korea as a New Centres of Power 


  1. The Korean Peninsula was divided between South Korea (Republic of Korea) and North Korea (Democratic) at the end of World War II. The People's Republic of Korea) was split along the 38th parallel.
  2. During 1950–53 the dynamics of the Korea War and the Cold War intensified the rivalry between the two sides. 
  3.  Both countries became members of the United Nations on September 17, 1991.
  4. Meanwhile, South Korea emerged as the center of power in Asia.
  5. Between the 1960s and 1980s, it grew rapidly into an economic power . Also known as "Miracle on the Han River".
  6. Indicating its all-round development, South Korea was established in 1996 by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development) became a member of OECD was founded in 1961 . It has 37 members.
  7. OECD was founded in 1961. It has 37 members.
  8. Currently South Korea's economy is ranked 4th in Asia and 12th in the world and 10th in military spending.  
  9. According to the Human Development Report 2019, South Korea's HDI Rank (Human Development Index Rank) is 23nd.
  10. The major factors responsible for its high human development are successful land reforms, rural development, extensive human resources development, etc. Other functions were export orientation, strong redistribution policies, public infrastructure development, effective institutions and governance.
  11. South Korean brands like Samsung, LG and Hyundai have become famous in India.
  12. Several agreements between India and South Korea reflect their growing social and cultural ties..


 India As A New Centres of Power 

  1. India is being seen as the emerging power of the 21st century.
  2. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stood at 6 -7% at the beginning of the 21st century and India was the fastest growing economy from 2014 to 2018.
  3. The long-term outlook of the Indian economy is positive as India is a country with young population, savings and investment rates.
  4. India was the world's tenth largest importer and 19th largest exporter in the year 2018. 
  5. India ranks 63rd in "Ease of Doing Business in India"
  6. India is the sixth largest producer country in the world accounting for 3% of the global manufacturing output. India is the sixth largest producer of the world
  7. India ranks second in food and agricultural production. Its agricultural exports are $38.5 billion.
  8. India is a major exporter of information technology services.
  9. India is the second largest coal producer, cement producer, steel producer in the world and the third power producer country in the world. Thus the economic condition of India is strong.
  10. India is a nuclear rich country. India's military is strategically self-reliant with indigenous nuclear technology.
  11. Indian army ranks among best 5 armies in the world.
  12.  India is a very strong country from socio-cultural and strategic point of view.
  13. India of the 21st century is a fast emerging global power and economy.






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