NCERT Notes : Class 12th Political Science Chapter 9 - Globalisation (2022-23)

 NCERT Notes Of Political Science Class 12 chapter 9 Globalisation in English Medium. Here we have provided ncert notes for class 12 Students of political science chapter 9 Globalisation in English Medium that will help students score good marks in board exams. These notes are prepared based on latest syllabus for class 12 Political science chapter 9 Globalisation in English Medium. 

NCERT Notes : Class 12th Political Science Chapter 9 - Globalisation (2022-23)


  1. The free flow of capital, goods, services, ideas and people between different countries of the world is called Globalisation.

  1. Electronic goods, children's toys are made in China and bought by Indians. Thus the free flow of goods is the result of "globalisation". 

  1. The employment of citizens of different countries in multinational companies, banks, etc. is called the flow of " people and services"

  1. Janardan becomes John, a call center worker, speaking the language of another country. Fast food culture is a change of dress, a globalization of ideas and culture. 

Problems caused by globalisation

1.Retail traders feared :- In the era of globalization, due to the opening of big stores of multinational companies, the business of small traders is at risk of being ruined. 

2.Suicides by farmers:- Farmers' crops got ruined and they did not get fair price for it, although they had bought expensive beaches from multinational companies. 

3.Land acquisition:- SEZ- Special Economic Zones - To increase production, new factories will be set up for which land acquisition is necessary, for which appropriate compensation will be given.

 SEZ- Special Economic Zones - Land acquisition took place under the SEZ scheme. Peasants' rebellion took place in Singur and Nandigram in West Bengal.

Concept of globalisation

Globalization means- "Free flow of goods, services, capital and ideas i.e. unimpeded reach from one country to another"."Mutual association or interdependence between states". 

There are four types of flows

  1.  Free flow of goods between different countries

  1. free movement of services or persons between nations

  1. The flow of capital between nation states

  1. Flow of ideas and culture 

Globalization is a multi-dimensional concept, it has political, economic and cultural embodiments. 

Causes of Globalisation

  •  There has been an exchange of things, persons and ideas since ancient times. But in the current globalization, there is more connection between markets, cultures, people and states. 

The main reasons for globalization are as 

follows -

1. Revolution in technical and communication sector:-

  1. In the last two-three decades, the use of technical and communication tools – telephone, e-mail, computer, jet aircraft, seaplane etc. have brought all the nations closer.
  2. The flow of capital, technology, raw materials, machines, goods manufactured in factories and humans have become easier. The interdependence of countries has increased. 
  3. The flow of ideas and culture has become easier. Politicians, educationists, journalists, artists, when they go to each other's countries, take with them the beliefs and traditions related to their country. 

2. Economic liberalization and privatisation policy:-

  1. After the decline of socialist ideology came the era of liberalization. In liberalization industrialists were given freedom to enter any industry, trade or business. 
  2. International financial institutions also put pressure on the states to open their doors to foreign investment. 

3. Mutual association of states :-

  1. The interconnectedness of the states means "the realization that we all have a common interest". Terrorism, bird flu, tsunamis or narcotics don't have national borders. Also, economic recession or inflationary pressures are not limited to any one nation. 

Effects or consequences of globalisation

1. Political Consequences:-

  1. In the second half of the twentieth century, developed countries like Britain, Canada, Sweden had taken the form of "welfare state". Even in countries like India, facilities like education, health and housing were considered the responsibility of the state. 

  1. The welfare work of the state decreased due to globalization. To deal with financial crises, loans have to be taken from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund 
  2. These institutions force the states to reduce their expenditure and balance the budget. It is said that the work of The state is only peace, order and protection from external threats. 
  3. There is no major threat to the primacy of the state due to globalization. Even today the states are independent and sovereign in international relations, internal decisions.
  4. There is still an entanglement of old Jealousy and rivalry between different countries. 
  5. States are fulfilling the functions like law and order, national security, but discharging many tasks very thoughtfully keeping in mind the international relations. 

  1. The capacity of states has increased a lot due to technological development:- Due to technological development, the capacity of the states has increased in two ways –

  • The destructive power of the states has increased
  • Due to the developed information system, information and information various events can work effectively. 

2. Economic Consequences

  1. Free flow of goods & services:-There has been a free flow of goods, services and capital between different countries through foreign companies. 
  2. Increasing role of International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization :-

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the WTO carry out the work of implementing the policy of globalization. 

  • Developed countries are trying to fulfill their economic interests through these International institutions. And pressure was put on underdeveloped countries so that they open the way for multinational companies.
  • The rules made by WTO were reduced in import duty, which benefited MNCs Multinational Companies. 

3. Free flow of capita :-Due to globalization, there is no longer any restriction on foreign investment, so any a country can invest in another country. Because of the revolution in the communication sector, one can invest anywhere for some profit. 

4. Mobility of individuals:- As a result of globalization, people can move from one country to another if they get more wages or wages. 

  • But the amount of movement of people did not increase in the amount in which flow of capital or goods is large. 

  • Because developed nations do not want citizens of less developed countries to settle there.

Bad effects of economic globalisation

1. The problems of the common man have increased due to the reduction in the welfare programs of the states. 

  • Due to globalization some governments are abdicating their responsibilities and due to this, people concerned with social justice are worried. 
  • They say that a small section will benefit due to globalization, while people dependent on the government for jobs and public welfare, education, health, sanitation facilities will suffer.
  • The advocates of social justice want that "some institutional measures or social security shields" should be prepared so that the economically weaker people can be protected from the ill effects of globalization.

  • Various movements of the world believe that the talk of "social security shield" is impractical, so there is a need to stop globalization so that poor countries are not economically ruined. 

2. Whoever makes cheap goods in the open market will win. Cheap goods will be made by the country which 

  •  Adopt developed technology
  • Where the workers are efficient and disciplined 
  • It is endowed with modern methods of trade and business management, as well as raw materials (cotton, leather, oil and things arising from the land). 

  • Therefore, globalization will be beneficial for companies from America, Japan, China or other countries. Therefore, open trade is a threat to poor and developing countries.

3. Neo colonialism : -Due to globalization the neo-colonial world structure is taking birth. Because the policies of less developed nations are made according to the World Bank, MNCs, and WTO. 

  • Due to the ill effects of globalization, people and organizations (workers, farmers and other individuals) of developing countries are agitating against the IMF, World Bank or WTO.

 Benefits of economic globalisation

  1.  Economic development and prosperity:- Due to globalization the open economy is providing good goods and services to the consumers at low prices due to competition. 
  2.  Globalization has increased engagement between nations :- Advances in information and Communication technology has increased interconnectedness between nations and individuals. 

  • The integration of the economy of every nation with the rest of the world has been observed. Foreign companies doing business with local companies. 

Cultural Consequences of Globalisation 

 Globalization also has a cultural side -

  1.  Internet, cable TV and satellites bridged cultural distances. 
  2. There has been a huge change in our eating habits, our life values and the way we think. 
  3.  Cultural homogeneity is greater than globalization. 
  4. The wear of jeans in the world, the spread of fast food culture is the result of globalization. 
  5. American culture was not imposed on the people, but as a result of American domination, its cultural dominance increased. 
  6. McDonald, Mickey Mouse, Jeans and Jackson have become cosmopolitans. 

Will influential cultures swallow the remaining cultures

  1.  There has been an increase in the "cultural hegemony" of the West, which can be called "cultural imperialism". 
  2. There is a possibility of imperialist values being engulfed at the world level, as a result of which the culture, civilization and speech of small and poor countries have increased in danger. 
  3. American culture cannot be a substitute for some great cultures. Despite the widespread of English, the Chinese language, Japanese in Japan, Hindi, Bengali, etc. in India are flourishing. 
  4. Cultural differentiation:- " As a result of globalization every culture is becoming more different and special, this process is called cultural differentiation. With the increase in the fashion of jeans, the demand for Indian khadi kurtas, silk and silk clothes has increased.
  5. Masala Dosa of India and Sink Kebabs and Noodles from China is prevalent in the whole western world. The trend of kurtas with jeans has increased. 
  6. French doctor Jean-Paul Napier has developed a new type of working language (Globis-Globis), consisting of fifteen hundred words, which is said to end the dominance of English. 

India & Globalisation

  1. As a result of the imperialist designs of Britain in the colonial era, India was an exporter of basic goods and raw materials and an importer of finished goods.Taking lessons from past experiences, we decided to make some goods for our needs, and also decided not to allow exports to other countries. 

  1. This protectionism created new problems. Progress was made in some areas but housing and primary education were not given as much attention. 

  1. As a result, the economic growth rate was slow. In 1991, to overcome the financial crisis and achieve high economic growth rate, a plan of economic reforms started in India.

 Under this 

  1. Income barriers removed on various sectors. 
  2. Trade and foreign investment are allowed in these areas. 
  3.  Promotion of privatization in the new industrial policy 
  4.  The ultimate criterion of economic reforms is not only high growth rates but also ensuring that the benefits economic growth is shared by all so that everyone becomes happy.

Impact of globalisation on Indian economy

  1. Globalization increases the competitiveness of developing countries. 
  2. Opening of new technologies and markets as a result of globalization. 
  3. Globalization opened the way for foreign capital investment.
  4. Banking and financial sector increased capacity due to globalization. 
  5. Democratic processes expanded due to globalization. 

India and resistance to globalisation

 Globalization in India is being opposed in many circles 

  1. Voices have been raised against economic globalization from left-wing political parties and forums such as the Indian Social Forum. 
  2. Industrial workers and farmers' organizations opposed the entry of multinational corporations. 
  3. Some plants, such as neem, attempted to be patented by American and European firms, which were opposed. 
  4. Globalization was also opposed by the right wing of politics. Right-wing groups have ranged from foreign TV channels being provided only through the network, to the celebration of Valentine's Day and students' interest in Western clothing. 

Resistance of Globalisation

Critics of globalization in the world give many arguments-

  1. Those with leftist political stances argue that the current globalization is a special condition of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer, and the weakening of the state reduces its ability to protect the interests of the poor. 

  1. Right wing critics are concerned about the political, economic and cultural effects of globalization. 
  2. They fear the weakening of the state in the political sense. 
  3. They want the era of economic self-reliance and protectionism to prevail, at least in some areas. 
  4. In the cultural context, they are concerned that there will be loss of traditional culture and people will lose their age old values and culture. 

Like-minded people of the country form alliances in a network of anti-globalization movements. The movement is not opposed to the notion of globalization but to a program which they consider to be a form of imperialism. 

  •  In 1999, the WTO ministerial meeting was held in Seattle. There were protests against unfair trade practices by economically powerful countries. He believed that the interests of developing countries were not given due importance in the emerging global economic system. 
  • The World Social Forum (W.S.F.-World Social Forum) is a worldwide forum for opposition to neo-liberal globalization. Under this platform, human rights activists, environmentalists, workers, youth and women activists unite and oppose neo-liberal globalization. 
  • The first meeting of the WSF was held in 2001 in Porto Alegre, Brazil, the fourth meeting in 2004 in Mumbai and the seventh meeting in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. In 2018 the meeting took place in Salvador, Brazil.


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