NCERT Notes Of Political Science Class 12 The End of Bipolarity (2022-23)

NCERT Notes Of Political Science Class 12 The End of Bipolarity (2022-23) as per the latest syllabus 2022-23 for English Medium Students. NCERT Notes are most important for scoring marks in board exams. So here we have provided ncert notes for class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity in English Medium.


The End of Bipolarity

The Soviet System

  1. After the Second World, in 1961, the Berlin Wall was built which symbolized the division of East and West Germany. The total length of this wall was 150 kilometers. It was demolished after 28 years on Nov.9, 1989.
  2. The Socialist Soviet Republic came into existence as a result of the Socialist Revolution(Bolshevik Revolution) in 1917. The Socialist Revolution was against the capitalist system.
  3. Socialist revolution was a big effort in human history to abolish the institution of private property and to make society aware on the principle of equality.
  4. In the Soviet system, the state and the institution of the party gave importance.
  5. The pivot of the Soviet political system was the Communist Party with no place for other political parties or opposition.

 The economy was planned and under state control. Its main characteristics were :-

  1. socialist economy
  2. planned economy
  3.  Standard of Living

Housing, education, health and pension were arranged for them by the state. Russia was the first country to give citizens the "right to work".

Characteristics of political system

  1. Autocracy of communist party
  2. Bureaucracy
  3. Government monopoly on newspapers, radio and television
  4. Lack of private rights and civil liberties


  1. After the Second World War, the Eastern European countries were saved from the clutches of the fascist forces in the "Soviet camp" which is called the other world. Their leader was the Socialist Soviet Republic.
  2. The economy of the Soviet Union was much more developed than that of the rest of the world. The communication system of the Soviet Union, the consumer-industry was also very advanced. They had huge energy resources, advanced traffic modes.
  3. The government of the Soviet Union had ensured a minimum standard of living for its citizens. The basic things like health, education, child care, public welfare schemes, land and production wealth were owned by the state.
  4. The bureaucracy was tightened on the Soviet system, the system became authoritarian, the lives of citizens became difficult, lack of democracy and no freedom of expression, one party was ruled by the Communist Party and this party had a deep control over all the institutions. This party was not accountable to the public.
  5.  The people had formed the Soviet Union by combining 15 republics to take care of their culture and other matters, but one party refused to recognise their identity. Other areas. The public often felt neglected and repressed.
  6. The Soviet Union had to pay a heavy price for the arms race from the US. The Soviet Union fell behind in terms of technology and infrastructure (transportation, energy). The Union could not meet the political and economic aspirations of the citizens. 
  7. The intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 led to the Soviet Weakened the Union. The wages of the Soviet people increased, but technology and productivity decreased. The system of the Soviet Union began to falter.

Gorbachv and disintegration Of USSR

  1.  Mikhail Gorbachov became general secretary of the Communist Party in the 1980s, he tried to improve information and technology, improve relations with Western countries and democratize the Soviet Union.
  2.  The countries of Eastern Europe belonged to the Soviet bloc , they started opposing their governments and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union did not interfere much and the governments (communists) in the Eastern European countries fell one after the other. 
  3. As a result the crisis deepened within the Union. Gaya and disintegration began. At the same time, the leaders of the Communist Party opposed Gorvachov's policy of economic, political reforms and democratization.
  4. The 1991 coup was promoted by Communist Party ministers, in which Boris Yeltsin emerged in the role of the hero, as well as the public got a taste of freedom. Boris won the election and the Russian Republic refused to assume centralized control.
  5.  Power began to shift from Moscow to the states This happened mostly in the European parts of the Soviet Union. The Central Asian republics wanted to remain with the Soviet Union. 
  6. In December 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin, the three major republics of the Soviet Union, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, announced the termination of the treaty.
  7. The Communist Party was banned and the later Soviet Republic made capitalism and democracy its basis.
  8.  The Communist Soviet Republic disintegrated and the Commonwealth of Independent States was formed.
  9.  Later the member states outside the Commonwealth were made the founding nations of the Commonwealth.
  10.  Russia was considered the successor of the Soviet Union and got the seat of the Union in the United Nations.
  11.  Russia got the status of a nuclear-armed nation by fulfilling treaties on behalf of the Union.

Mikhail Gorvachev

 

 He became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985 and President of the Union in 1988 and resigned as President on 25 December 1991.

Why Gorvachov was forced to reform?

  1. Agricultural and industrial management in the hands of government employees, economic development halted.
  2. The arms race stopped the development of the country
  3. Communist Party's excessive interference in bureaucracy and economy.
  4. The Communist Party damaged democratic institutions (Central and Provincial Legislatures).
  5. Lack of freedom of thought and expression
  6. Due to the proliferation of means of information and communication, citizens came to know about the advanced life of western countries.

Two reform policies of Gorbachev

  1. Glasnost:- Openness means that citizens get the right to get complete and correct information on public subjects.

  •  People were given the right to form political parties according to their wishes
  • The government took away its authority on news papers, radio, TV etc. and allowed people to express their views.
  • People's freedom and rights were promoted, as well as the right to religious freedom.
  • Removed government control from industries, gave people the freedom to set up private industries, allowed them to keep private property.

2. Perestroika:- Reconstruction. It emphasized political, economic and administrative reforms.

  • The radicals thwarted these reforms and a rebellion ensued).

WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION DISINTEGRATE

Establishing CIS- Commonwealth of Independent States

  1. The Soviet Union disintegrated on Dec 25, 1991 as a result of the struggle of the republics. 12 of the 15 states combined together to form the “Commonwealth of Independent States”.
  2. Boris Yeltsin became President of Russian country with new constitution in 1992

Reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union

  1. negligence of political democracy:- dictatorship of Stalin etc. and of the Communist Party).
  2. economic stagnation:- Due to agriculture and production management being in the hands of the government, the decrease in productivity and standard of living of people was lower than in western countries.
  3.  Armament:- basic things due to increased expenditure on military equipment 
  4.  comparison between soviet union and wertern countries: - Soviet citizens began to reject the Communist Party due to lower standard of living than that of western countries.
  5.  Policies of Gorbachev:- Gorvachov attempted to correct the distortions of communism and the inefficient bureaucrats that resulted in the rebellion.
  6.  collapse of communist party and governments in eastern Europe:- Gorvachov withdrew the army from the Eastern European countries and decided to end the "Warsaw Pact". Consequently, changes in the Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, Romania, etc.) weakened Communism.
  7. Role of Western Countries:- As soon as the demand for democratic reforms against the communist dictatorship in the Eastern European countries became strong, it got the support of the western countries, it increased the morale of the public.
  8.  National aspirations of republics :- The Soviet Union disintegrated due to the national aspirations of the republics. Between 1988 and 90 the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) declared independence. In 1991 Georgia declared independence.

Consequences of Disintegration

  1. End of cold war confrontation :- The four-decade-long Cold War ended. The withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan began in May 1988. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and East and West Germany reunified in October 1990. Changes in power in EasternEurope And with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the socialist camp disintegrated.
  2. End of bipolarity & Dominance of America:- Four decades of cold war came to an end. The withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan began in May 1988. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and East and West Germany were united in October 1990. Power in the countries of Eastern Europe Change took place and the socialist camp disintegrated with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991.
  3. Emergence of New Countries: - The republics that broke away from the Soviet Union became the new members of the United Nations, which increased the number of members of the League of Nations. The Baltic countries and the countries of Eastern Europe, fearing Russia, joined NATO. Central Asian countries maintained good relations with Russia and China due to geographical conditions.

SHOCK THERAPY IN POST-COMMUNIST REGIMES

  1. Shock therapy means "treating a patient by shock" After the fall of communism, the republics of the Soviet Union went through an annoying transition - from "an authoritarian socialist system - to a democratic capitalist system". 
  2. Agricultural land and industry trades that were still in the "hands of the government" are now given "private control" which is called " The capitalist system " brought in. 
  3. The model, directed by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), is called "Shock Therapy (SHOCK THERAPY) ".
  4. Shock therapy fundamentally changed the attitude of those economies towards external systems. 
  5. The policy of free trade, financial openness, mutual convertibility of currencies was considered important. 
  6. In the transition period, the existing trade alliances between the Soviet camps were abolished and the countries of the camp were connected with the Western countries. 
  7. In this way these countries were linked to the economy of the western Countries.

economic consequences of shock therapy

  1. economic disaster:- There was a lack of people to run private companies efficiently in Russia, as a result, inflation increased and the value of the currency “ruble” came down significantly. People's deposits kept going away. Russia had about 160 billion dollars of debt. The old agricultural and industrial structure broke down but no alternative structure was created. Russia had to start importing food grains. Russia's GDP declined in 1999 compared to 1989.
  2. destroy system of social welfare:-The Soviet Union was the first country to give its citizens "the right to work. Citizens had the right to receive government assistance in case of old age and illness. This circle of social security had now been broken. By stopping government subsidies, a large section of society was poverty-stricken. The educational and intellectual manpower got scattered or migrated.
  3. Economic Disparities:- The privatization of farms and industries greatly increased economic inequalities. The new economic system divided Russia between the "rich" and the "poor." In many countries, a "mafia class" emerged. 

Political consequences of Shock Therapy 

  1.  The development of democratic institutions is gradual. Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan became new states after separating from the Soviet Union and their constitutions were also made in haste.
  2.  The executive (president) had more powers than a democratically elected parliament.In 1993, Boris Yeltsin threatened to dissolve the Russian parliament.
  3.  Emergency was declared in the same year and in 1994 the Chechnya conflict broke out. In the 1995 elections, the Communist parties got only 157 seats out of 450. 
  4. The presidents of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan extended their terms for 10 years. Then extended it for 10 years and did not allow opposition to this decision. 
  5.  The economies of most of the countries started reviving in 2000 and beyond. The main reason for this was the export of natural resources such as oil, natural gases and minerals.
  6.  Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are the major producers of natural resources.

Bladimir Putin Came Into The Power

  1. Boris Yeltsin resigned from his post on Dec 31,1999. Vladimir Putin was made acting President. 
  2. He was duly elected President in the elections held in March 2000. 
  3. He was the head of KGB-komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (Russian Intelligence Department) therefore he knew how to deal with criminal elements. 
  4. His economic reforms won public confidence. The resources (iron, gold, platinum, copper and gas industries) played an important role in reviving the Russian economy.

Tension & Conflicts

Most republics of the former Soviet Union are conflict-prone areas. The republics have also intervened with external forces along with civil war and rebellion.

Chechnya and Dagestan

  1. Violent movements took place in Chechnya and Dagestan. Moscow carried out irresponsible bombings to suppress the Chechen insurgency.
  2.  Vladimir Putin faced terrorism from Dagestan and Chechnya as soon as he was appointed prime minister in 1999. Incidentally, the steps taken by him were welcomed by the public.

Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan

  1. From independence in 1990, Tajikistan was in the grip of civil war until 2001. Communal riots continued throughout the region. Rebellions against the government continued in Kyrgyzstan as well.
  2. Rebellions and civil wars against the government continued in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, etc. Many countries kept fighting over river water.
  3. Central Asian republics have huge reserves of petroleum resources, due to which these republics got economic benefits. For this reason this region became the arena of external forces. 
  4. After the incident of Sep 11,2001, the US wants to establish its military base in these areas. 
  5. Russia considers these regions to be its immediate foreign countries. Due to the presence of oil resources, China also trades in the border areas.
  6. Czechoslovakia in Eastern Europe was peacefully divided into two countries Czech and Slovakia. 
  7. The most intense conflict took place in the Balkan Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1991, the province was divided into two parts and the included Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia and Croatia declared themselves independent. 
  8. Here NATO had to intervene. Yugoslavia was bombed. Ethnic conflict took the form of civil war. Yugoslavia ceased to exist in February 2003. In its place two new states, Serbia and Montenegro emerged

India & Post - Communist Countries

  1. The best relations among communist countries have been with Russia.The history of India-Russia relations has been a history of mutual trust and common sense.
  2.  India adopted the policy of friendship with Russia and Western countries following the principle of non-alignment. The Soviet Union proved to be our true friend in times of crisis.
  3.  About 80 bilateral agreements have been signed between India and Russia, including the Indo-Russia Strategic Agreement of 2001. 
  4. Russia has always supported India on Kashmir issue, issue of international terrorism etc.

Economic Relations

  1. Large steel factories in India, Bhilai, Ranchi and Bokaro were established in 1956 and 1961 with the help of Russia. 
  2. When there was a shortage of foreign exchange in India, the Soviet Union supported our economy by making the Indian rupee the basis of foreign trade. 
  3. The antibiotic factory in Haridwar is an example of Soviet cooperation.

Political relations

  1.  When the question of Kashmir went to the Security Council, Russia supported India. In 1962, when India took military action against Portuguese rule in Goa, Russia sided with India in the Security Council. 
  2. Russia's stance was with India in the Indo-Pak war in 1965. India and Russia signed a friendship treaty in 1971, which benefited from the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.

Arm relations & scientific exchange

  1.  In 1979, India and Russia issued a joint communiqué declaring the Indian Ocean a "area of peace". 
  2. In 1980, the Soviet Union agreed to send military supplies worth Rs 1,300 crore.
  3. In 1984, the astronauts of both the countries went on the space mission.
  4. India used to get a lot of military stuff from the Soviet Union. 

Cultural & Educational Exchanges

  1. Actors of Hindi films, especially Raj Kapoor, were particularly popular in the Soviet Union. In 1981, India and Russia signed an agreement on cultural and educational exchange.

India-Russia Relation After Disintegration Of Soviet Union

  1. In 1994, Russia decided to give Sukhoi-30 to India.
  2. In 2001, the agreement on "Strategic Cooperation" against terrorism was signed.
  3. In December 2006, the way for a joint space mission was cleared.
  4. On the year 2008, India celebrated the "Year of Russia".
  5. On the year 2009, Russia celebrated the "Year of India".
  6.  India is the second largest buyer of Russian arms.
  7. India imports oil from Russia.
  8. India also holds strategic importance for Russia.
  9. India's relations with Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) besides the Russian Federation have deepened and expanded. 
  10. These countries have vast reserves of oil, coal and gas. Prime Minister of India visited Kazakhstan in April 2011 I
  11. Russia is important for India's nuclear plan.
  12. Russia helped the space industry by providing cryogenic rockets.

Middle east crisis Afghanistan

 

  1.  From the beginning, there was a monarchy in Afghanistan, but in 1973, the monarchy ended in Afghanistan and Mohammad Dawood became the Prime Minister.
  2.  In 1978 Marxist leader Md. Noor Taraki Md. David removed. Md. Noor Taraki was not supported by Pakistan and America. 
  3. He had the support of the Soviet Union. Soviet Russia increased the intervention to stop The growing dominance of America and Pakistan in Afghanistan. 
  4. The US used Pakistan as a "front-line" state to control the Soviet Union's dominance in Afghanistan.
  5.  Due to the deteriorating economic condition of the Soviet Union, the Soviet forces were withdrawn from Afghanistan by the 1988 Geneva Agreement.
  6. 9/11 Global War On September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers from Arab countries hijacked 4 US commercial planes, two of which hit the 110-story twin buildings of the World Trade Center (WTO) in New York. 
  7. The third plane hit the Pentagon building in Washington DC. (in Arlington Virginia) which is the headquarters of the US Department of Defense. 
  8. The fourth plane crashed into a village in the state of Pennsylvania, although the hijackers intended it to hit the US Parliament House. The accident was named "9/11".  
  9. About 3000 people died in this incident who belonged to 80 countries.
  10.  Since the US became a country in 1776, it was the biggest attack on America till 2001.
  11.  This is compared to Britain's arson in Washington DC in 1814 and Japan's attack on America at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in which about 2500 soldiers died. 
  12. In response to 9/11, then-President George W. Bush launched the US-led “Operation Enduring Freedom” as a worldwide war on terrorism, targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
  13.  The infamous al-Qaeda chief Osama-bin-Laden was killed in a military operation in Abbottabad, Pakistan on May 2, 2011.
  14. The US military made arrests from different parts of the world and they were kept in the US Navy base Guantanamo Bay near Cuba, where they are not protected by international law and UN representatives are also not allowed to meet.

Formation of National Unity Government in Afghanistan

  1.  Ashraf Ghani Ahmedzai was sworn in as the President of Afghanistan on 19 September 2014.
  2.  For the first time since 2001, there was a peaceful transfer of power. Presidential elections were held in two phases on 5 April and 14 June, in which the independent candidate "Ashraf Ghaniahmadzai" defeated the "National Coalition of Afghanistan Party" candidate "Abdullah".

First Gulf War -1990-91

Attack on Kuwait

  1.  On Aug, 2, 1990 the Iraqi army suddenly attacked Kuwait and took it under its control.
  2.  Iraq considered Kuwait as its own state and had an eye on its vast oil resources. The US condemned this and demanded that Iraq Evacuate Kuwait unconditionally. 
  3. The US President knew that the Soviet Union was surrounded by its domestic Conflicts and economic troubles, so the best way to establish its influence on the region was to take military action against Iraq.

Operation Desert Storm

  1.  Instead of taking direct action, the US made the UNO a medium.The UNO decided to impose an economic blockade. 
  2. On November 20, 1990, the Security Council passed a resolution that if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991, military force would be used against it. 
  3. On January 17, 1990, under the leadership of General Norman Schwarzkopf of America, 660,000 soldiers of the combined forces of 34 countries opened the front against Iraq. 
  4. This military operation was named "Operation Desert Storm". Iraqi forces were defeated in it. 
  5. The US used technology, smart bombs, etc. in this war, so this war was called a "computer war". 
  6. Due to the worldwide TV broadcast, this war turned into a "video game war".

Operation Desert Storm target

  1. The target of Operation Desert Storm was to force Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait by bombing roads, railways, airports, energy sources, arsenals and oil plants. 
  2. Saddam Hussein realized his mistake as a result of peace efforts by countries such as the Soviet Union and India.
  3.  Iraq announced the withdrawal of its forces from Kuwait and the Gulf War ended.

Consequences of the Gulf War

  1. This war proved that the rest of the countries are far behind America in military capability.
  2.  Reports say that America got more money from countries like Germany, Japan and Saudi Arabia than what America spent on this war, so America made profit.
  3. The Gulf War broke the illusion of Arab unity. Only 12 of the 20 countries sent troops.
  4. Heavy bombing caused huge loss of life and property in Iraq and Kuwait.
  5.  There is also a truth that if America did not attack Iraq, then Arab countries had no other way but to bear the atrocities of Saddam Hussein.

Second Gulf War

  1.  The US had been behind Iraq since the first Gulf War. He had been considering Iraq as one of the "axis of destruction".
  2.  Iraq was also accused of supporting terrorism like North Korea, Libya etc. On the other hand, the reign of dictator Saddam Hussein had also become infamous for murder and torture.
  3.  He brutally murdered thousands of Kurds. In addition, the US pretended that Iraq had developed weapons of "mass genocide". 
  4. But America's real eye was on Iraq's huge oil reserves and for this reason he wanted to establish his favourite government there.

Operation Iraqi Freedom

  1.  Iraq was pressured through the United Nations to allow international observers to inspect Iraq's weapons, but Saddam Hussein refused to do so.
  2.  In such a situation, America created a "Coalition of Aspirants" in which more than 40 countries joined. 
  3. Without the permission of the United Nations, this Coalition attacked Iraq on March 19, 2003 under the name of "Operation Iraqi Freedom". 
  4. Saddam Hussein's government ended after a few days. He was hanged on December 30, 2006.

Consequences of the Gulf War -II

  1. More than 3000 American soldiers were killed in the second Gulf War. Iraqi soldiers were killed in large numbersand more than 50 thousand civilian civilians of Iraq died.
  2. Despite the dominance of America, there has been no peace in Iraq. Along with ethnic violence, the problem of national reconstruction continues.
  3. A full-fledged rebellion has erupted there against America.
  4. The biggest thing is that weapons of mass genocide were not found in Iraq.

Democratic Politics and Democratization

Adoption of a democratic system is called democratization. 

For thise things are required-

  1. Citizens should have a democratic spirit.
  2. public should be aware.
  3. Truthfulness, tolerance and interest in public works.
  4. Citizens should be educated. 
  5.  There should be a free and fair press. 
  6. There should be social and political equality.

 Commonwealth of Independent States

  1. The "Commonwealth of Independent States" is also known as the "Russian Commonwealth". 
  2. The Commonwealth of Independent States includes those countries that came into existence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. 
  3. The headquarters of this organization is located in Minsk (Belarus). This organization came into existence on December 21, 1991.

Members:- Its member states or countries are the following :

  1. Armenia, 
  2. Belarus, 
  3. Kazakhstan, 
  4. Kyrgyzstan, 
  5. Maltova, 
  6. Russia, 
  7. Kazakhstan 
  8. Azerbaijan 
  9. Georgia.

 The associate members of this organization are 

  1. Ukraine, 
  2. Turkmenistan, 
  3. Uzbekistan.

Origin and Development

  1.  The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed on December 8, 1991 by the signing of an agreement by Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. 
  2. Eight more republics of the former Soviet Union joined the meeting held in Kazakhstan on December 21, 1991.
  3.  Georgia became a member in 1993.

Objectives of Commonwealth of Independent States :- Its objectives are as follows:-

  1.  To assist in the transfer of governmental activities and treaty obligations in the countries that left the former Soviet Union.
  2.  Inspire related policies in national security and disarmament.
  3.  Bringing about economic unity among the members.

Structure :- The Commonwealth of Independent States consists of the following :-

  1.  Council of Heads of State: - It is the supreme body of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  2.  Its meeting is held every 6 months. In this, the collective interest of the member states is discussed.
  3.  Council of head of government:- Its meeting is held every month.
Inter Parliamentary Council :-

  1.  It was constituted in 1992. 
  2. Its head office is in St. Petersburg. 
  3. Foreign affairs, defence, environment are discussed in this.

 Ministerial Council: - This council brings coordination in the foreign policies of the member countries.

Arab Spring or Arab Revolt

  1.  Since 2010, People of Central West Asia and North African countries had started a period of rallies, protests, strikes and armed struggle for democracy, for income equality, for human rights, for fair and free elections and for employment against the governance and governments there, which was named "Arab Revolution".
  2.  This revolution started on September 18, 2010, in Tunisia by a fruit seller “Mohammed Bouzzi” who committed suicide after being saddened by police corruption and misbehavior. 
  3. Gradually such a revolution spread to other Arab countries - Bahrain, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, Kuwait, Morocco, Libya, Algeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Egypt etc.
  4. This revolution was taking place in different countries but their methods of protest were almost the same. Such as strike, dharna, march and rally.
  5. Their demands were also almost the same.Typically, Fridays (also known as the Day of Outrage) would see massive and organized massive protests, when ordinary citizens gathered on the streets to offer Friday prayers.
  6. Social media had a unique and unprecedented contribution to the Arab Revolution.Social media was extensively used to connect the far flung people with the revolution in a very tructured manner.
  7. As a result of these protests, the rulers of many countries were forced to step down from the throne of power.
  8. This revolution shook not only West Asia but the whole world. The slogan of this revolution was -"The call of the people - the end of the rule."

The main causes of the Arab Spring

Dictatorship and Authoritarian rule

  1.   In these countries, repression, dictatorship and authoritarian regimes used to suppress the voice of opposition By misusing their political powers. 
  2. For example:- Bin Ali in Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak (30 years old) in friend, General Gaddafi in Libya, al-Assad regime in Syria, the public was upset. 

Rampant Corruption

  1.  Corruption was at its peak in these countries. The rulers had acquired vast wealth.
  2. Even basic facilities were not available to the public. 
  3. The economies of countries like Libya and Tunisia had collapsed.

Infringement of Human Rights

  1.  Dictatorships and autocratic rulers deprived the citizens of fundamental rights. 
  2. Tried to suppress the voices raised in protest. 
  3. This angered the educated youth.

Poverty, Unemployment and Inflation

  1.  Here in many countries the unemployment rate was high, due to which poverty was increasing. 
  2. The skyrocketing food prices, inflation of essential commodities and frequent famines had created resentment among the general public.
  3.  According to some experts, the 'protest on the 2009-10 Iran election' is also considered as a Reason. 
  4. Perhaps the 'Kyrgyz Revolution' of 2010 served to ignite the Arab Spring.

  •  The revolutionaries of the Arab Spring faced repression from the government, state-backed armed fighters and other opponents, but they went ahead with their slogan "the people want to bring down the regime”.

 

  •  The Arab Revolution attracted the attention of the whole world. Tawakkol Karman, a Yemeni, one of the prominent warriors of the Arab Spring, was a 2011 Nobel Peace Prize winner. 
  • In December 2011, Time magazine awarded Arab opponents the title of 'The Person of the Year'.

International Responses 

  1.  Protests in countries affected by the Arab Spring have drawn considerable attention from the international Community, while harsh administrative responses have been condemned.
  2.  A German-Kurdish politician named Kenan Engin recognised the uprisings in Arab and Islamic countries as "the third wave of democracy" due to the qualitative characteristics that clearly resembled the "third wave of democracy" of the 1970s and 1980s in Latin America.


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